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Xmas Trees

Xmas Trees

Primary flow control system for well once in production
Features and access requirements
Outflow from well - production
Inflow to well - injection or killing
Vertical access to tubing - wire line, coiled tubing

Xmas Tree Components
Pressure gauges (accessory)
safety hazard / potential wrong pressure readings
Gauge flange or tree cap
provides seal for top of tree
Lubricator valve
isolate pressure, well access for intervention tools
Flow tee
used to direct flow, enable thru-tubing access
Production wing valve
used to isolate well for most routine operations
Kill wing valve
enables connection of pumping equipment
Choke (accessory)
controls rate of flow from well
Master valves (main isolation valves)
Upper Master Valve (operational valve), optional: hydraulic / pneumatic controlled
Surface Safety Valve
Lower Master Valve (back-up valve)
  manually operated

 Categories of Xmas Tree
Flanged tree
Several flanged components
each connection is a potential leak path
Much more common than monoblock design
More flexible than monoblock design
takes up more space (height)
Monoblock construction tree
Single block construction
Fewer possible leak paths
Used in high pressure/leak sensitive locations
Monoblock Xmas Tree
Comprises inline or "Y" shaped block of single casting/forging
Valving arrangement
Lower Master Valve (manual)
Upper Master Valve (Surface Safety Valve)
Y piece or side outlet flanges
houses both production and kill wing valves
Uppermost valve (manual swab valve)



  Multiple Completions
Cases where more than one completion string installed
Each string independently suspended
Must seal off tubing casing annulus
either independently or collectively
Independent control of fluid flow in each string
Xmas Tree Selection
produce a listing of the parameters of the anticipated process or operating envelope
- Classify the Well Type
  Water Well ( low or medium pressure, Rate )
  Oil Well (low, medium or high pressure, GOR, Rate )
  Gas Well ( low, medium or high pressure, WGR, Rate)
This will be the basis for the design and the selection of equipment type and rating


wellhead installation
 

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